Recent British Vivisections (1917) A RECORD OF CRUELTIES PERPETRATED UNDER THE NATIONAL INSURANCE ACT -AND IN- PRIVATE RESEARCH WORK By Walter R. Hadwen, M.D., J.P. PRICE ONE PENNY PUBLISHED BY THE British Union for Abolition of Vivisection, 32, CHARING CROSS, LONDON, S.W. 1. Ktli C«JHtI IB. HCSTqfMl**- C«lrW» C 'n«f« Mv"v9^€cIL Recent British Vivisections (1917 ) HHHE following record of cruelty in British laboratories appeared first in the form of three articles in the Abolitionist of September, October and November, 1917. The first chapter describes experiments on dogs, cats and monkeys, and gives evidence of the infliction of lengthened sufferings. The question of ancesthetisation need not be considered , inasmuch as the main cuelty consisted in the effects of the operations performed, and not in their actual per- formance. It xvill be seen that no definite or useful residts were obtained, and that the experiments were financed by the National Insurance Committee, under which the money had been obtained for a totally different purpose. The second chapter relates some horrible experi- ments upon dogs, the condition to which they were reduced being plainly revealed by a photograph published by the experimenters in June, 1917 ; other similar photographs are added. The third chapter reveals a further waste of money raised at the expense of the nation under the Insurance Act. This article gives a general idea of the fantastic and absurd inquiries in the interests of which so many animals are continually being cruelly sacrificed. CHAPTER I. A NATIONAL HEALTH INSURANCE SCANDAL IT is now nearly twenty years since we described in the Abolitionist certain cruel experiments per- formed upon dogs and monkeys by Dr. Edmunds, consisting of the complete and partial removal of their thyroids and parathyroids. From that time to the present, thousands of similar experiments have been conducted by vivisectors in this and other countries. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology for March, 1917 (edited by five of the chief English vivisectors), brings these investigations up to date. They consist of a long series of experiments in which large numbers of dogs, cats, rabbits and rats were used up. The investigations were undertaken : (1) To gain further knowledge of the disturbances of the nervous system which follow the removal of the parathyroids, and of their relation to a peculiar nervous condition called tetany (compri- sing usually a rigid condition of the muscles of the extremities, spasms of the larynx and epileptiform convulsions), which is chiefly met with in young children. (2) To throw some light upon the factors which were responsible for these conditions. (3) To further elucidate the functions of the parathyroids. The thyroid gland is a small swelling situated in front of the upper part of the windpipe, which occasionally grows to an abnormal size, when it is called goitre, and the parathyroids are small bodies of seemingly similar structure lying in the vicinity of the thyroid. AFRAID OF ANTI-VIVISECTIONISTS. Tetany in children was first described by Clarke in 1815 — now a little more than a century ago — and experiments on animals' thyroids were, apparently, first undertaken by Astley Cooper, some twenty years later, namely in 1836. He removed the thyroids in two pups, a dog and an ass, and in an appendix to Guy's Hospital Reports, he promised a description of " the interesting symptoms which supervened," but they were never published. Two writers (Drs. Noel Paton and Leonard Findlay) remark : " Probably this was one of the series of experimental investigations, which, as stated in his Life, he abandoned through fear of agitation against him by anti-vivisectionists." This is interesting, and, if true, would show that there was an active protest against vivisectional practices in this country forty years before Miss Frances Power Cobbe (the foundress of the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection) commenced her agitation. Thirty-three years later (in 1859), a German, Moritz Schiff, published an account of his extirpations of the thyroid in dogs, cats and guinea-pigs, all of which drew a blank so far as useful knowledge was concerned. There seems to have been a lull for another twenty years, when experiments on the thyroids and para- thyroids of animals became more general, and since that time until now, thousands of sentient animals have been exploited ; these latest experiments by Drs. Noel Paton and Findlay, and others, occupy no less than 180 quarto pages of the March issue of the Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology. NO ADVANCE THROUGH VIVISECTION. We may well ask, after all this welter of animal torture and sacrifice, what has been gained thereby, so far as it has any bearing upon the alleviation of human suffering or the acquisition of useful knowledge ? The investigators themselves provide the answer : " Clarke, who first described tetany (1815), thought that it was due to some disease of the brain, and even to-day all we can definitely assert is that it is characterised by, and due to, a hyper-excitability of the nervous system ; but how far the brain, the spinal cord, or the peripheral neurones are affected, and what causes the hyper-excitability is not known." This negative result, after more than a century of vivisection, is a bad advertisement for the practice. There have been many theories as to what the primary causes of the tetany conditions could be. Some have claimed that they are rheumatic in nature ; others that they resulted from errors in diet ; others again that they were due to certain occupations. Some thought they were caused by too much lime salts in the brain ; others, that they arose because there was too little ; in fact every theory, as it came along, was associated with fallacies, exceptions and contradictions. TETANY IN "RICKETY" CHILDREN. Rickets claimed and still claims a leading place among the numerous theories of origin, as "tetany" is frequently found among rickety children, but then it is known to occur in breast-fed children which are not rickety, and rickets does not explain tetany in adults. It has been thought to be due to a specific infection, but without sufficient evidence to support the idea. The theory which has obtained, however, the most popular favour among a certain class, during the last three or four decades, has been that tetany is due to a functional or organic disturbance of the thyroid gland, or of the parathyroids. The idea was conceived owing to symptoms of tetany having occurred after excision of the thyroid gland. The first operator (in 1880) believed it to be due to the absorption of septic poison after the operation (which is probably the cause of the very definite condition known as tetanus, resulting from wounds that have not been cleansed). Others thought that injury to the nerves during the course of the operation was the cause of the tetany, especially as the same symptoms occurred in connection with goitre, tuber- culosis and other affections of the thyroid ; but similar symptoms have been known in abundance where there was no goitre and no thyroid affection. Then came the theory of the parathyroids as the exciting cause of tetany. It was ten years ago, in 1907, that a German, having found blood in the parathyroids of children who had died of convulsions, came to the conclusion that the bleeding had been caused at birth in consequence of difficult labour, and the injury to the parathyroids was therefore responsible for the tetany. This was contradicted by many others who found no blood in the parathyroids under similar circumstances. A FINE CHANCE FOR THE EXPERIMENTER. As the result of all this mass of theory and contradiction, a fine field of exploration, extending over years, was opened up to the view of the vivisector, who came to the conclusion that the question could only be answered by experiments on dogs and cats and other animals. Cutting out their thyroids entirely, cutting them out bit by bit, cutting out all the para- thyroids, cutting out some and leaving others, cutting out the thyroid and only part of the parathyroids, and so on, in endless diversions, such were the experiments that were conducted with a view to solving the problem of tetany in children. The work began in earnest, in 1884, by Schiff cutting away the thyroid in a dog, when certain nervous symptoms resulted. He then took the thyroid of another dog and sewed it into the abdomen of the first dog, when, he says, the nervous symptoms abated. Then another German, Wagner, in the same year did it in cats, and Sir Victor Horsley, in 1885, wound up the series with monkeys. But — as is the way with vivisectors — the authors of the treatise in the Quarterly do not agree with the latter's conclusions. As the result of many hundreds of these horrible experiments, the conclusion was finally arrived at that if you cut away the thyroids and parathyroids in dogs, cats, and monkeys, their dispositions are altered, they become nervous, depressed and sluggish, they shake their paws (which is called "water shaking"), they get contraction of the larynx with difficult breathing, sometimes their heads are thrown back and their spines arched so that they rest on head and hind legs, their legs jerk and show muscular tremors and stiffness, and they suffer from convulsions in all degrees of severity, become emaciated and refuse to take their food, fall about, suffer from diarrhcea, become prostrate with weakness and usually succumb in a convulsive fit. As a variation, holes were bored in bones, and bits of thyroid transplanted therein, to prevent the develop- ment of tetany, and then taken out again to watch results, but our present authors candidly confess that " the benefit said to be produced .... is frequently more apparent than real, and that it is merely one of those temporary intermissions in the intensity of the symptoms." INSURANCE MONEY REQUISITIONED. Now, it was to continue all this sort of thing that an application for financial aid was made to the Medical Research Committee of the National Insurance Act, and funds were granted out of the English public purse for the prosecution of a scheme for studying the cause of tetany under the innocent name of " Rickets." At least, such is the statement made by Sir Edwin Cornwall to Mr. H. G. Chancellor, in reply to a question in the House of Commons, and the following is a copy of the official scheme which the parliamentary representative of the National Health Insurance Joint Committee has supplied to our Parliamentary Repre- sentative, declaring that he knows no more of the matter than what appears in this innocent-looking " scheme." RICKETS. Investigations of the common deficiency factor in diets of children who develop rickets, systemat- isationof hospital dietetic records. Relative effici- encies of curative diets. Relation of fat holism to rickets. meta- General metabolism in rickets : analytic studies. Bristol : Work under direc- tion of Prof. Walker Hall. Visiting assistance, etc. Glasgow : Work under direc- tion of Prof. Muir and Prof. Noel Paton. Statistical investigation and visiting expenses. Chemist (part time). Histologist (whole time). Dr. Renton, surgical assist- ance. Dr. Findlay, clinical assistance London : (i.) Dr. Corry Mann (Evelina Hospital). Visitor, etc. (ii.) Work under direction Dr. Garrod and Dr. Still (Great Ormond Street Hospital). London: Absorption of choles- terol and its distribution in the body in rickets. Dr. J. C. Gardner. Sheffield : Prof. Leathes. Assistant. Leeds : Work directed by Prof. Grunbaum and Dr. Dudley. Assistant (whole time). 4. Determination of growth factors, with special reference to rickets. Effects of rickets on the incidence and mortality of other diseases. Cambridge : Worker directed by Prof. Hopkins. Edinburgh : Prof. Ritchie. Relation of pituitary and other factors to growth. Dr. Fraser (part time). London : Dr. E. Mellanby (London Hospital). Chemical Assistant (part time). Dr. Plimmer, Prosector to Zoological Gardens; occasional assistance and expenses. Collection of information from fox-hound kennel- masters. Central Institute : Dr. Brownlee and Assistants : with co-operation offered by Sir George Newman and his staff. WHAT THIS "SCHEME" CONCEALED. No one could possibly suppose that, under cover of this colourless " scheme," many scores of outrageous experiments on animals would be perpetrated and that no less than four vivisectors (Alexander Watson, David Burns, George M. Wishart, and J. S. Sharpe) would be engaged in the work and contribute articles on the subject, whose names do not appear in the official list of persons authorised to conduct the in- vestigation. It is quite impossible to say under which head these experiments could have been carried out. Apparently, the " scheme " having been accepted and the money grants allowed, the vivisectors proceeded to do as they chose, without any further control, and applied for and obtained from another department — the Home Office — the necessary licences to prosecute their work. Although, probably, we know as much about rickets as we shall ever know, we, nevertheless, would raise no objection to harmless looking investigations such as appear in the above list, conducted, as they should be, among human subjects and in a way that could offend no humane susceptibility. In fact, from time im- memorial, such investigations have been conducted voluntarily by medical men interested in the subject, and upon their results our present scientific knowledge of the subject rests. But we do protest against such investigations being placed in the hands of vivisectors supported out of the public purse, and their being allowed to pursue their work among dogs and cats in physiological laboratories from which it is impossible to eliminate cruelty, this work being fraught with endless fallacies consequent upon differences in physical constitution and all the conflicting elements associated with pain, distress and operative complications. TRYING TO PRODUCE TETANY. In the first of the seven articles before us, written by Drs. Noel Paton and Leonard Findlay, they definitely say: "Our object was to produce the condition of tetania para- thyreopriva in as large a proportion of the animals used as possible, and this can be done most certainly by complete thyroparathyroid- ectomy." (That is, by cutting away entirely the thyroid and parathyroids in animals, in order to produce the various symptoms already mentioned.) They say : "Our first series of experiments were made upon cats. These animals are specially well suited to extended series of observations . . . since . . . the symptoms are less rapidly fatal than in dogs. In investigating the role of the different parts of the central nervous system, and in the metabolic investigations, dogs were used. Some observations were also made upon monkeys, chiefly with the view of noting whether in them the hands and feet are affected in the same way as those parts in idiopathic tetany [' idiopathic ' means, not produced by any known cause] in the human subject. For some of the work upon guanidin, rabbits and rats were also used." Several detailed accounts of such results are given, and carbon tracings of the tremors and jerkings in the legs of dogs are reproduced. We will select one example of what these animals were called upon to go through in the interests of experimental physiology. The number will give some idea of the numerous animals of one class alone used in these experiments. EXPERIMENT ON "CAT 91." "Cat 91. — The right sciatic nerve cut on 18/11. Thyropara- thyroidectomy [that is, cutting out thyroids and parathyroids] on 19/11. On 21/11 marked spasticity, with water-shaking and tremors. The facial phenomenon was marked. On 22/11 coarse jerkings were added to the other symptoms, and the animal ran backwards and tended to fall to the left. On 23/11 spasticity, tremors and jerkings as before. In the morning the 10 animal tended to fall forwards, with head down and hind quarters up. In the afternoon, when put on the floor, it spun or sprung round its long axis from right to left, and when it reached the wall it leaned upon it. 24/11 very depressed. Several times sudden attacks of disturbances of balance. The head was flexed between the fore-legs, the legs were extended, back arched, and in this position it sprang round its long axis. These attacks were brought on by placing the animal on its back. It was killed by chloroform." The above description needs no comment, beyond noting that this state of things went on for at least a week, during which time no anaesthetic was administered subsequent to its use at the initial operation. A photograph is given of the two sides of a monkey's hand ; the description is as follows : Small RJiesus. No symptoms were observed, but the animal was very dull and used its hands awkwardly. It was found dead on the third day, apparently after a convulsion, the hands being flexed and thumbs adducted as shown in fig. 6. NOTHING NEW LEARNT. In Part II. of these investigations, the experimenters — Drs. Noel Paton, Leonard Findlay and Alexander Watson — inform us : " All the nervous symptoms are undoubtedly due to the condition of the central nervous system." This was what Clarke said over a century ago and a fact with which we are all acquainted. "Of the relative parts played by the three great arcs — the spinal, the cerebellar, and the cerebral — a considerable amount of work has been done, but it has given no decisive answer to the question." Numerous experiments are then recorded by the authors with a view to elucidate these points. They completely removed both sides of the brains of cats and describe the symptoms. The poor animals lived in this condition several days, and the conclusion arrived at is that " removal of the cerebrum increases the violence of the symptoms." What those symptoms are we have already seen. The animals seem usually to have died in convulsions. Then, after the usual parathyroidectomy, the spinal cords of dogs were cut in order to see the effect in the cerebellar area, and the experimenters came to the same conclusion arrived at by Biedl some time previously. After this, the spinal area was considered, and the spinal cord cut lower down, and the symptoms duly recorded. We are told that " the epileptiform attacks 11 that so often cause death are strikingly similar to ordinary epileptic fits in which the cerebrum is un- doubtedly involved." We are wondering, as we proceed, what all this has to do with " Rickets." Part III. is concerned with electrical reactions conducted upon large numbers of dogs and cats. Many of the electrical reactions were tried after the head had been removed from the body. EXPERIMENTS MULTIPLY. Part IV. discusses the question as to why nervous symptoms such as have been recorded should take place as the result of the excision of the thyroid and parathyroid glands, and discusses the many theories supported by numerous experimenters, and how far they correspond with the writer's own. In order to see if the nervous conditions were due to certain poisonous substances being set free in the system, normal animals were injected with similar substances to those which it was thought might have been excreted in the system. For instance, the writers say : " We have made a few observations on the effects of intravenous injection of ammonium salts in cats, and we find that the move- ments produced are of the nature rather of coarse jerkings than of fine tremors." After discussing the many views of others as to the probability that some " guanidin-like " substance circulating in the blood was responsible for the symptoms, Drs. Paton and Findlay say : " We have made an extensive series of experiments on the action of guanidin hydrochloride in rabbits, rats and cats. With methyl guanidin nitrate we have performed a smaller series . . . . In all these experiments the symptoms produced were indistinguishable from those of tetany following parathyroid- ectomy." Illustrations are then given of several experiments on cats. They are very revolting, and need not be further described ; they are, as the vivisectors say, a repetition of the symptoms already mentioned. Tremors, jerking and convulsions play the most prominent part. In one case the cat " lashed its tail from side to side, showed some excitement and circled to the right." In another "After twelve minutes, jerking of the left hind leg when the cat was held up. Two minutes later these jerkings involved both 12 hind legs and the tail. The cat could move about, but the hind legs seemed paralysed. The hair on the back was erected." Part V. records a number of experiments on the urine of animals under normal conditions, and also after feeding with various diets. These experiments were repeated after their parathyroids had been cut away. Subsequently the urine of children suffering from tetany was tested. As a result, the conclusion was arrived at that in the case of the last two conditions (i.e., in the urine of dogs and children) the amount of guanidin was increased. NOTHING CONCLUSIVE. Part VI. deals with some ingenious experiments per- formed by Dr. Wishart in cross circulation in frogs, by immersing the muscles of their legs in the blood of a dog or cat killed immediately after its thyroids and parathyroids had been excised. And the operator concludes that the results in the frog are the same as when guanidin is administered, but the susceptibility of the muscles of different frogs varies so much as to render the test unreliable. In Part VII. Dr. David Burns attempts to show the differences in the amount of nitrogen found in animals after their parathyroids have been removed. All the old horrible symptoms ensued, in which con- dition the dogs' urine was drawn off by a catheter and examined, and Dr. Burns concluded that the same results are obtained when the thyroids and parathyroids are cut awayas when guanidin is giventoafastinganimal. In a final paper — Part VIII. — Drs. Noel Paton and Leonard Findlay sum up the conclusions they arrived at after a consideration of the results of the endless experiments recorded in the preceding 174 pages. Their conclusion is "that the symptoms which follow the removal of the parathyroids are due to the action upon the central nervous system of guanidin or methyl-guanidin developed in the body as a result of an altera- tion in the metabolism." [Metabolism signifies the physiological changes and splitting up processes which take place in the system.] THE VIVISECTOR'S THEORY. This " guanidin," which is supposed to possess such remarkable properties, is found, it appears, " only in traces in the unfertilised eggs of the hen. During the development of the chick it increases steadily till 13 the twelfth day, when the increase stops." From what it is produced in animal bodies is to form the subject of still further investigations. Apparently the theory is that, because tremors, jerkings, convulsions, etc., can be produced by injecting an extractive, called guanidin,. into an animal's body, and because when the parathyroids are cut out there are similar nervous symptoms, and the excretion of the guanidin is increased ; and further because in children suffering from idiopathic tetany, there are convulsions and also increased guanidin in the urine; therefore, tetany in children is caused by guanidin acting in some mysterious way upon their parathyroids. In short, that tetany in children, and tremors, etc., in dogs deprived of their parathyroids, have a common origin. It is, after all, but a theory, and it is declared by other vivisectors that the evidence is not conclusive, which means, we presume, that these wretched animals will be called upon to undergo still further torture, to establish or disestablish certain ideas which, whatever happens, are of no practical value. The fallacies connected with the theory are many. An adult may have tremors and jerkings after an operation on his parathyroids, as does an animal under similar circumstances, but a child does not experience these tremors and jerkings ; it has convulsions. On the other hand, a child, like a dog, may become de- pressed and emaciated, but not so a man. THE THEORY CRITICISED. Furthermore, sometimes one symptom may be present and others absent; there is no uniformity in any case. For instance, the laryngeal spasm of children does not occur in animals when guanidin is injected, increased excitability is a symptom practically common to all, but we may venture to suggest that guanidin is not the only drug which will produce nervous excitability, nor is the excision of the parathyroids the only operation that leaves nervous symptoms of some kind behind. The chief lesson would appear to be, that a disturbing operation contiguous to so many important organs is calculated to lead to the most unexpected and complicated results upon the nervous system. We are not surprised, therefore, that 14 in spite of the hundreds of experiments which have been conducted, these latest investigations have failed to carry conviction to the minds of other vivisectors. The authors admit that "the striking difference between the spontaneous [in children] and the post-operative types of the disease [in animals and man] is the rarity of muscular twitchings in the former and their great frequency in the latter." They go on to say that Pineles put this down to " a difference between tetany in man and in animals," but Drs. Paton and Findlay differ from him, saying, " we are inclined to consider it a difference between infantile and adult tetany." We would suggest that these differences in physical results and the differences in opinion about them by equally competent vivisectors, suggest once again the truth of our oft-repeated statement that you cannot argue from animals to man, and that these methods, in spite of all the elaborate work, and the large amount of time and money expended and the manifest suffering entailed upon countless sentient animals, is an altogether unscientific, misleading and inconclusive method of investigation. "PROBABLY"— THE OLD CONCLUSION. This view we believe to be corroborated by the admission on page 380 that "idiopathic tetany is a con- dition which rarely ends fatally, but parathyroidectomy in animals, when complete, is inevitably followed by death." This is excused on the ground that " it is not a difference of kind but of degree." We venture to suggest that it is a difference of fact. Their final conclusion is that A. " The parathyroids regulate the metabolism of guanidin in the body. By doing so they probably exercise a controlling influence on the tone of the muscles. B. "Tetania parathyreopriva [tetany after operation] and idiopathic tetany [the spontaneous variety in children] are identical as regards their characters and metabolism [their own evidence has proved they are not] , and, although the histological evidence is not conclusive, in all probability the parathyroids are implicated in the latter as in the former.'* (The italics are ours.) 15 In short, these latest researchers, with their doubts and contradictions, have left the matter where scores of other researchers before them had left it. And even had they succeeded in proving their theory, their success would not, so far as we can discover, have advanced in the least the scheme of useful knowledge as applied to the human subject. We are still wondering what all this has to do with " Rickets," for the investigation of which, it appears, these vivisectors claimed the assistance of funds under the National Health Insurance Act, and we again ask : " What right have the custodians of the public purse to distribute large sums of money among English and Scotch vivisectors for useless, unscientific and cruel operations of this description, when this money was collected from the taxpayer for an entirely different purpose? " Is it anything short of a public scandal ? 16 CHAPTER II. EXPERIMENTS ON THE BRAINS OF DOGS FIFTY pages of the June issue of the Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology are devoted to an account of a number of experiments per- formed upon a small organ of the brain called the pituitary body. The text is accompanied by fifty-seven illustrations. In the Abolitionist of March, 1913, we referred to " Observation 36. — Adult fox terrier ; a total removal of the pituitary 10 days after preceding heterogeneous transplant in bone marrow. Photo- graph taken 4 days after operation, showing typical attitude, with arching of back, etc.. characteristic of onset of cachexia hypophyseopriva." similar experiments performed by Sir Victor Horsley on fourteen dogs in the year 1886, and we published some illustrations showing the horrible deformities resulting from such operations. We reproduce two of them. The present vivisector, Dr. W. Blair Bell of Liver- pool, has subjected twenty-seven bitches to operation. He conducted his investigations in the Pathological Department of the University of Liverpool, and for the facilities afforded him in doing so, he acknowledges 17 his indebtedness to Professor Ernest Glynn, whose many random and inaccurate assertions on " Microbes and the War" were dealt with in our April issue (1917). The pituitary body is a very small reddish-grey mass lying toward the front part of the base of the brain ; it weighs only from five to ten grains, and consists of two lobes ; that in front is the larger and is oblong in shape, and that behind is round. The two lobes differ both in development and structure. In the lower animals the two lobes are quite distinct, but in the mammalia they become connected together. Curiosity led Sir Victor Horsley, thirty years ago, to try to ascertain what were the functions of this tiny little vascular mass. And since then many others have made similar attempts. "In almost every case," says the present writer/'the operation was a fail- ure from a scientific point of view, or post-opera- tive com- plications resulted in the death of the animal." These successive " failures " and " unreliable results " were largely due, we are told, to " imperfect methods," the vivisectors having sought to reach the base of the brain by boring through the jaw, and it is horrible to contemplate what the poor animals must have suffered, especially in foreign laboratories, where, as we know, even an apology for an anaesthetic is dispensed with if it should interfere in the least with the vivisector's work or convenience. 'Obsekvation fiO. — Fox terrier puppy, 14 days after total removal of the pituitary. Symptoms of cachexia hypophyseopriva of 3 days' duration, and more advanced than shown in previous illustration. Photo- graph a few hours before death." 18 Dr. Blair Bell adopted the plan introduced by Paulesco, Professor of Physiology at Bucharest, of boring an opening in the temples of the twenty-seven animals he used up, and his object was, he says, " to test the correctness or otherwise of the experiments carried out by Paulesco and in attempting to gain further information concerning the experimental pathology of the pituitary." THE OPERATIVE PROCEDURE. The article gives a full description of the whole procedure. Most of the dogs used were from four to seven months old, as the skull plates are thinner in younger than in older animals. One animal died from bleeding " due to faulty surgical technique." Another had an " overdose of ether." A third succumbed "from some unknown cause" soon after the pituitary body had been totally extirpated. A few days prior to the main operation the dogs were submitted (under ether) to an abdominal operation for the removal of an ovary and another portion of the genital organs. The anaesthetic for the chief operation on the brain was administered mechanically through the windpipe and not by inhalation, as the operator wished to work comfortably without having the anaesthetist in his way. He says this method was " smooth, uninterrupted and safe " and the animal "was easily restored to consciousness by the administration of air alone" through the tube in the windpipe. We confess we do not feel happy about this method in the case of a dog strapped immovably to its trough. No surgeon would care to perform an operation on the skull of a human being under such conditions. But, at the same time, it is only right to say that an anaesthetist devoted himself solely to watching the animal's breath- ing and feeling its heart-beat with his hand under the covering cloth. The operator also says it was completely under the influence of the anaesthetic before he commenced the primary work of opening the skull. AND ITS RESULTS. The chief symptom arising from this mutilation was (as in the cases illustrated on the preceding pages) what is called " cachexia hypophyseopriva," that is, 19 emaciation due to the removal of the pituitary hody and resulting in hideous deformities. But the present investigator, Dr. Blair Bell, says he does not agree that the attitude assumed by dogs which have been operated upon is the specific result of the operation, and argues that it is " merely an attitude of weakness which is always seen in dogs in an advanced stage of emaciation and debility from any cause whatsoever." If this be the case, then, what caused the emaciation ? If the emaciation and deformity are not. the result of the removal of the pituitary body, they must be due to the general disorganisation of the brain caused by the operation, and if the disorganisation can produce similar symptoms to those produced by removal of the pituitary, we fail to see that any scientific conclusion can be drawn from the operation itself. The inevitable contradiction of one another by vivisectors is in this instance of some importance. By way of control experiments, two bitches were submitted to the same procedures as the others ; that is, portions of the womb and ovary were excised, and the pituitary body was exposed in the brain, but none of it removed. The animals lived for months ; but ''neither showed any symptoms until shortly before death, when one of them died with convulsions." The writer thinks it must have been poisoned, because another bitch chained up next it died in convulsions at the same time. ANIMALS CANNOT TALK! In the cases where the pituitary was wholly removed, all the animals succumbed in from twenty-two to thirty-six hours after the operation. They became dull, refused their food, then coma set in and they died. Much the same story is told when the anterior lobe only was removed; but it was found impossible to remove the anterior lobe without damaging the posterior. So partial removal of the anterior lobe was tried in five bitches. They were allowed to live from 9 up to 40, 60, 108 and 210 days. Beyond drowsiness or " animal very weak through the whole period," nothing particular was noticed. Of course the animals were unable to express their own feelings in language that Dr. Blair Bell could understand. In some cases there 20 was wasting of the genital organs, in others there was none, which looked as if the conditions depended upon circumstances quite outside the removal of the pituitarjr. Then the whole posterior lobe was removed in one dog. It was partially removed in another dog, then parts of both anterior and posterior lobes were cut away in two other dogs ; then the stalk of the pituitary body was clamped and separated in three others. A TUMOUR OF WAX. Last of all, an artificial tumour was made of wax moulded into the shape of a bun, and fixed in the brain Fig. 46. — Dog 20. 98 days after operation, showing the emaciation and attitude of weakness caused by glycosuria due to the pressure on the pituitary of an imitation tumour. (Photograph.) of three dogs so as to press on the pituitary body. One of the dogs was killed an hour after it came out of the anaesthetic, as it appeared to be in pain. But the other two were allowed to live for 57 and 98 days respectively before being killed. The latter showed great emaciation whilst the former grew fat. We reproduce the illustration of the dog that lived for 98 days after having the artificial wax tumour fixed in its brain. Several pages are devoted to a discussion of the contradictions among the various vivisectors who had performed the same operations, and the points where 21 the author agrees or disagrees with them are carefully detailed. He says in conclusion : " It is not impossible to reconcile these diverse findings, especially if we study the difficulties Cushing encountered when he attempted to make his experi- mental results conform to his clinical observations. Believing that reconciliation was not possible, he was tempted to throw over his experimental results in favour of the clinical evidence that was in conflict with them.' 1 ' 1 (The italics are ours.) This is a poor recommendation for experiments on animals ! In fact, it affords strikingly clear proofs of the uselessness of vivisection. The chief conclusion which Dr. Blair Bell comes to after all these repulsive operations on the brains of twenty-seven bitches is that the pituitary body is an organ essential to life, as its removal causes death in a few hours. It is equally fatal if large portions of the anterior lobe are cut away. But partial removal of both lobes is not fatal. Partial removal of the anterior portion may, if sufficient quantity be removed, cause genital atrophy. Artificial tumours in the brain " may produce irritation accompanied by glycosuria [sugar in the urine] and emaciation." The pituitary body appears to be one organ and not two. It is difficult to see what practical result has been obtained by all this cruelty. " The expenses," Dr. Blair Bell tells his readers, " were defrayed out of a fund placed by Mr. J. Arthur Smith at my disposal for scientific research." He does not say how much the total outlay amounted to, but if Mr. J. Arthur Smith thinks he has received value for his money, he is easily satisfied. To be told that by digging out a tiny obscure organ at the base of the brain by means of a complicated and dangerous operation upon the skull of a little bitch a few months old," one can assure the death of the animal (which is practically the only piece of positive scientific information which has been obtained as the result of this extensive and elaborate exploitation of twenty-seven sensitive and intelligent creatures) would be grotesque and ludicrous in the eyes of every ordinary thinker were it not so horrible and senseless. It passes com- 22 prehension that intelligent men can spend months and months of valuable time in inquisitorial practices which are doomed to failure at the very onset, and it is still more incomprehensible that they should be allowed to continue these practices under the sanction of a Christian State. 23 CHAPTER III. EXPERIMENTS AT UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, READING. THE following particulars constitute an excellent example of the fact that the Medical Research Committee appointed under the National Insur- ance Act have more money than they know what to do with, and are squandering it upon discreditable pursuits. In a report furnished by R. Stenhouse Williams, M.B., B.Sc, D.P.H., Research Bacteriologist in Dairying to the National Medical Research Com- mittee and others, we learn that the object of their investigations was to find out if the bacillus of tuberculosis still lived " when excreted upon pasture land in the faeces of cows." The premiss apparently being accepted that the tubercle bacillus is the originator of tuberculosis (which is extremely doubtful) it was presumed that if it still lived on pasture land after being excreted from cows, the land itself might become a fertile source of infection to any cows subsequently grazing thereon. This supposition, of course, leaves out of account the fact, that a so-called pseudo tubercle bacillus infests nearly all dairies, and cannot be differentiated from the genuine article. Apparently, it is a pseudo bacillus when the cattle are not tuberculous, but it is a genuine bacillus when they are ! That seems to be as far as up-to-date science has penetrated. The first step that was taken was an offer to examine the faeces of the cows of any farmer who was willing to grant permission for that purpose. The description of the collection of the dung, as given in detail, is most graphic, and unless the cow was altogether deficient in a sense of humour, she must have got more fun out of the procedure than the scientist who waited upon her. 24 COW WORRYING. The scientific investigator dressed himself up in " a sterile overall " and patiently stood by the cows with " a sterile spoon " in his hand ready to catch the dung as it fell from them when their ladyships were pleased to oblige. He then promptly placed this in " a sterile vessel " that he kept near, and at once hurried off with the precious contents to his laboratory. But it appears this method was found to be rather " inconvenient, more especially when the dung from a particular cow was desired." So a quicker and easier method was decided upon. At first a specially made spoon was introduced into the cow's rectum, but this proved unsatisfactory ; so the hands and arms of the investigator were washed and painted with iodine, the orifice of the cow's rectum was also cleaned and painted with iodine, and the hand was then introduced and some of the salubrious material withdrawn. " With the help of a sterile spoon it was then transferred to a sterile vessel and brought to the laboratory " where it was kept in an ice chest until required. THE GUINEA-PIGS' TURN. Microscopic examination was deemed to be quite in- sufficient for discriminating between a real and a false tubercle bacillus, so guinea-pigs were requisitioned, into which, it was decided, the faeces of the cows must be injected ! And if the guinea-pigs contracted tuber- culosis after this sewage matter had been pumped into their bodies, the scientific mind came to the con- clusion that the tuberculosis was due to the germ in the sewage and not to the sewage itself. And this is how the sewage was prepared : A quantity of faeces was mixed with a sterile saline in a sterile stoppered bottle, well shaken up, poured into a sterile cylinder and allowed to stand one hour. At the end of that time the greater portion was poured off into a centrifuge tube, some antiseptic added and the whole was shaken at intervals for half- an-hour. Then it was whirled in the centrifuge tube at the rate of 4,000 revolutions a minute for a quarter of an hour. The fluid was poured off, the sediment washed with sterile saline and again centrifugalised. The fluid was once more removed and more sterile saline added, when this delectable emulsion of faecal matter 25 and salt water was considered fit for injection into guinea-pigs. It requires a " scientific mind " to under- stand the rationale of these weird proceedings. But bits of straw blocked the syringes, so further refinements were found to be necessary. The fasces were mixed with sterile distilled water (!), the suspension was filtered through muslin and the residue in the muslin bag squeezed with forceps in order to get through as much of the emulsion as possible. AMOUNT OF FILTH REQUIRED TO KILL. The liquid faeces was then inoculated into guinea- pigs— twenty-six to start with — and " none died." The quantity of fasces was thereupon increased, eighty-six guinea-pigs were inoculated and " all survived." The proportion of faeces was still further increased and the filth was injected into twelve guinea-pigs, when three of them died within three days ; so the quantity of faeces was reduced, and ninety-six more guinea-pigs were inoculated. As only two died out of this lot, it was considered a very gratifying result. Encouraged by this scientific success of injecting the faeces of cows into guinea-pigs without killing them, the investigators decided to treat a similar quantity of faeces for one hour with antiformin — a disinfectant — which they thought would not kill the tubercle bacilli, but might enable them to pump a larger quantity of faeces into the bodies of the long suffering guinea-pigs. So 112 guinea-pigs were inoculated with this precious emulsion, and seven of them died in a few days. This seemed so to gratify the experimenters, that they decided to get in a still larger proportion of faeces, by treating the latter with antiformin for two hours instead of one. Forty-eight more guinea-pigs were requisitioned for this illuminating programme and fifteen died within a few days. Of the twenty-seven guinea-pigs which had died within seven days of their inoculation, twenty-two had shown marked signs of septic infection spreading from the seat of inoculation, in spite of the antiformin, so it was concluded that the proportion of faeces must be reduced or the antiformin increased, or else the faeces must be allowed first to decompose. 26 Fasces two days old were then treated with anti- formin for four hours and the stuff was injected into six guinea-pigs, five of which died in three days. Then they injected twelve guinea-pigs with faeces that had been kept for a fortnight before the anti- formin was added, and two of these died in seven daj^s, suffering from diarrhoea. FANTASTIC PREPARATIONS OF FILTH. A hundred guinea-pigs were then experimented with. By keeping the fasces a week, incubating for one night, shaking with distilled water, filtering through muslin, revolving this mess in a centrifugal machine at a terrific rate, again incubating the sediment, adding antiformin, again centrifugalising, and mixing with salt and water, the scientists decided that they had "diminished the danger" of septic infection and " increased its chance " of not killing the germs ! This was the sublime scientific result which they arrived at, after fooling about for months with the disgusting job of pumping cows' fasces into 500 guinea-pigs ! Then follows a long account of the results of the post-mortems on the inoculated guinea-pigs. It seems that fasces were obtained from 179 cows altogether, scattered among three widely-separated districts. Incidentally, it is interesting to notice that, in one district, twenty-five out of eighty cows gave a positive reaction to tuberculin, but no evidence of tuberculosis was forthcoming on examining the fasces, which looks bad for the tuberculin test ! The authors seem very elated at their " good fortune " in finding a cow which gave a " positive result" in its fasces, and they seem quite to rejoice in the fact that of two of the guinea-pigs inoculated therewith, " one died within three days and one after forty-three " ! It was found that glands of the guinea-pigs were infested, the liver and spleen enlarged, and bacilli in the pus. Material from these glands was injected into more guinea-pigs, which died from this slow torture at varying periods. The rest of the report consists of a wearying re- iteration of similar disgusting details. HARMLESS TUBERCLE BACILLI. Three cows which yielded such profitable results as tubercle bacilli in their faeces were purchased by the National Medical Research Committee with National Insurance money, and at the end of five and seven months respectively, they were still in '"good condition" although continuing to excrete tubercle bacilli — which did not appear to do them any harm ! The cows gave plenty of milk, and there is no evidence that anybody was any the worse for drinking it. The report is, in our opinion, of a most ludicrous, repulsive, unscientific and inconclusive nature. In the first place, the experimenters take for granted that the tubercle bacillus is the cause of tuberculosis. There is no definite ground for that assertion. The presence of the tubercle bacillus is practically unknown in the earliest stages of the disease and is absent in a large majority of advanced cases. Moreover, they do not settle the point that there are psuedo acid-fast bacilli which cannot be differentiated from so-called true bacilli, and no scientific evidence has yet been vouch- safed to show that they are not one and the same thing. In the second place, they conclude that when they inject fasces, containing tubercle bacilli, into guinea- pigs, it is the bacilli which produce infection and caseation of the several organs involved, and they decline to entertain any suspicion that the effete matter itself, apart from any germs, might be the causative factor. In the third place, if, as Dr. Charles Creighton has, we believe, conclusively proved, tuberculosis is a physio- logical process and not a biological one, then sewage matter would be as likely to produce tuberculosis by blocking the capillary blood vessels, as would the tubercle bacillus, and the latter, if responsible for the condition, would only incur that responsibility by reason of its mechanically inducing a similar result, and not because of any imaginary vital disease- producing agency in the bacillus itself. THE WORST BLUNDER. In the fourth place, this method of testing a theory is an unscientific one. To inoculate sewage matter, with or without bacilli, beneath the skin of an animal directly into the blood stream, is contrary to all natural 28 methods. Nature knows no entrance into the internal economy except by the nose or the mouth, and she has her various apparati ready to render innocuous, as far as possible, intrusion by any other way. But to pump material through the skin — an organ intended only for excretory purposes — is contrary to natural science and to all hygienic laws, and can be no possible guide to a scientific conclusion. In the fifth place, the organs of a guinea-pig are by no means a scientific sphere in which to judge, by analogy, conditions affecting higher animals living under altogether different conditions. In the sixth place, from a moral standpoint, these acts of cruelty — bestial cruelty — towards hundreds of guinea-pigs, which, however low in the animal scale, are sentient and sensitive, are reprehensible ; and it is equally immoral to employ cultured men who should be occupied with work of national importance, upon such demoralising occupations, at the expense of moneys taken from the pockets of the workers of this country, in times like the present. What is of far more importance, is the description given in the latter part of the report of some of the byres from which the cows came. Here is one: "The cow, which was found to be excreting tubercle bacilli in her faeces stood in a shed with seven other cows ; the only exit was down the dunging passage of another shed, in which stood four more cows. The only means of ventilation was an eight-inch drainpipe high up in one of the walls. There was no through ventilation, and two fixed windows, two feet six inches by ten inches in the roof, gave the only light available. The cubic space per cow was 299 cubic feet. Neither the cows nor the shed were washed ; indeed it was doubtful whether there was a sufficient supply of water for such purposes. The result of these conditions was that the cows, which only went out of the shed each day for a few minutes night and morning to water, were in a very dirty state and the sheds themselves showed every evidence of manurial contamination." THE OBVIOUS IGNORED. The authors conclude that pigs get tuberculosis by drinking the milk of cows living under such conditions. It does not seem to occur to them that pigs frequently live under conditions quite as bad if not worse than these. But, anyhow, here lies the answer, as to the cause of tuberculosis. It surely is not necessary to spend 29 large sums of money upon the squirting of cow manure into guinea-pigs to discover how tuberculosis may be prevented ! But, we presume, to start an agitation for the demolition of all such scandalously insanitary quarters for cows as are here described is not a sufficiently "scientific" job for the National Medical Research Committee, nor would it provide a per- manent remunerative post at Reading University for a scientific experimentalist. There is a final recommendation of the Tuberculin Test for cows, in spite of the evidence afforded by the writers of its uselessness. But this they attribute to its " not being carried out with sufficient care " — a convenient excuse by which every market-place quack explains away his failures. That futile and ridiculous investigations of this kind should be allowed to take place in the name of science and under the auspices of a National Health Authority is a public scandal of the gravest description, and should call for the immediate attention of members of the House of Commons. If you wish to put a stop to such practices as are dealt with in this booklet, join THE BRITISH UNION FOR ABOLITION OF VIVISECTION 32, Charing Cross, London, S.W. 1. Life Membership - - - - £5. Members 10/- a year. Associates 2/6. Deverell, Sharpe & Gibson", Ltd., Bromley Buildings, Bread Stkeet Hill, E.C. 4. The British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection. Foundress : FRANCES POWER COBBE. President and Hon. Secretary : WALTER R. HADWEN, M.D., J. P. Hon. Treasurer : The Right Hon. VISCOUNT HARBERTON. Hon. Parliamentary Representative : H. G. CHANCELLOR, Esq., M.P. Secretary : Hon. Solicitor : Miss B. E. KIDD. E. HEYS-JONES, Esq. Headquarters of the Union : 32, Charing Cross, Whitehall, London, S.W. 1. Bankers : Lloyds Bank, Limited, 16, St. James Street, London, S.W. 1. THE "ABOLITIONIST." Monthly Organ of the British Union. containing : High-class Articles on the Moral, Scientific and Historical Aspects of the Anti-Vivisection Question ; Replies to the Research Defence Society ; Racy Criticism of New Vivisectional "Cures"; Chronicle of the Month's Work, &c. Should be read by all Humanitarians. Specimen Copy sent post free to any address. YEARLY SUBSCRIPTION C;^r) 3 - per annum. "Support the British Union. >j In the case of benefactors desiring to bequeath legacies in support of the cause, they are respect- fully urged to clearly state in their Wills, " The British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection," and to make them payable to the Treasurer for the time being. Publications of the British Union. Class A. — For Beginners. PAMPHLETS. Price. A Sketch of the Vivisection Question, by J. Fraser Hewes Id. A Statement on Vivisection, by F. C. Hunt Light in Dark Places, by Frances Power Cobbe Experiments on Animals (Report of a Speech at Newcastle 1913, by Dr. Hadwen, J.P.) Experiments on Human Beings, by Dr. Dudgeon The Cult of the Vivisector (An Analysis of his Claims), by Dr. Hadwen, J.P Was it for Science? (The Runcorn Donkey Case) Some Medical Views of Vivisection, by A. F. Whiteley .. Some Recent Vivisection Practices in English Laboratories by Dr. Hadwen, J.P Id. Three Affidavits: Revelations from the Rockefeller Hell. Gratis Id. Id. 2d. Id. =k1. id. 3d. LEAFLETS (Free). What Becomes of the Strays. The Meaning of Anti-vivisection. English Vivisection Experiments. What the Doctors say (Some Anti-vivisection Views). Dr. Crile's Experiments. The Kindnesses of Sir Victor Horsley. Gems of Vivisection Evidence. Vivisection, by Roy Ellis. Publications of the British Union (continued). Class B. — Refutation of the Claims of Vivisectors. PAMPHLETS. Price. A Reply to the Lecture of the Research Defence Society... Id. The Uselessness of Vivisection, by Prof. Lawson Tait ... 3d. The Royal Commission's Report, 1912 (reprinted from the Standard), by Dr. Hadwen, J.P Id. The Antitoxin Treatment of Diphtheria, by Dr. Hadwen, J.P. 2d. Tuberculosis and Cow's Milk, by Dr. Hadwen, J.P. ... Id. The New Tuberculin, by Dr. Hadwen, J.P Id. Rats and Fleas: a Discussion on Plague, by Dr. Hadwen, J.P. 2d. Antisepsis or Asepsis? by Dr. Hadwen, J.P Id. Jennerism and Pasteurism, by Dr. Hadwen, J.P Id. The Case against Vaccination, by Dr. Hadwen, J.P. ... Id. Evidence for and against Vaccination, by Dr. Hadwen and Dr. Drury 3d. Dr. Hadwen's Reply to Dr. Drury 3d. Was Jenner a Charlatan? by Dr. Hadwen, J.P Id. The Blunders of a Bishop, by Dr. Hadwen, J.P. ... ... Id. Pasteur and Rabies, by Colonel Tillard Id. The International Medical Congress (1913), by Dr. Hadwen, J.P Id. A Reply to Professor Schafer, by Dr. Hadwen, J.P. ... Id. A Reply to the Research Defence Society's Leaflet on Typhoid, by Dr. Hadwen, J.P Id. Analysis of the Registrar General's Figures for 1915, by Dr. Hadwen, J.P Id. A Reply to Lord Lister, by Dr. Hadwen, J.P. Id. LEAFLETS (Free). The Germ Theory of Disease, by Dr. Scott Tebb. Dr. Alfred Russel Wallace on Germs. Antitoxin for Diphtheria. Malta Fever (The Maltese Muddle). Pasteur and Rabies. Vivisectors before the Royal Commission. Dr. Doyen's Confession. Inoculation for Plague. Vaccine for Distemper. Various Leaflets on Typhoid Inoculation. Class C. — Giving Both Sides of the Question. Price. Correspondence between Dr. Hadwen and Sir Victor Horsley Id. Debate between Dr. Hadwen and Mr. Stephen Paget at Shrewsbury ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 2d. Debate in the Standard between Dr. Hadwen and Mr. Stephen Paget 3d. A Vivisection Controversy (Dr. Hadwenand Mr. Stephen Paget) 2d. Debate between Dr. Hadwen and Dr. Chappie, M.P., on Experiments on Dogs Id. Debate between Dr. Hadwen and Dr. Eastham at Glossop Id.